Only 25 years after it opened, the factory refined more than half of the nation’s sugar. The historian Michael Tadman found that Louisiana sugar parishes had a pattern of “deaths exceeding births.” Backbreaking labor and “inadequate net nutrition meant that slaves working on sugar plantations were, compared with other working-age slaves in the United States, far less able to resist the common and life-threatening diseases of dirt and poverty,” wrote Tadman in a 2000 study published in the American Historical Review. It has been a long delay because the developers only want to give a small percentage…for regular people like me.”, Shelton is the only volunteer on the floor of the provocative installation who ever worked at Domino’s sugar refinery. The landscape bears witness and corroborates Whitney’s version of history. That’s my number,” Shelton says. The 1619 Project examines the legacy of slavery in America. Lewis is the minority adviser for the federal Farm Service Agency (F.S.A.) About a hundred were killed in battle or executed later, many with their heads severed and placed on pikes throughout the region. “He’s privileged with a lot of information,” Lewis said. committee member to gain an unfair advantage over black farmers with white landowners. If it is killing all of us, it is killing black people faster. A formerly enslaved black woman named Mrs. Webb described a torture chamber used by her owner, Valsin Marmillion. June Provost has also filed a federal lawsuit against First Guaranty Bank and a bank senior vice president for claims related to lending discrimination, as well as for mail and wire fraud in reporting false information to federal loan officials. Freedmen and freedwomen had little choice but to live in somebody’s old slave quarters. From Sheridan Libraries/Levy/Gado/Getty Images. The museum tells of the everyday struggles and resistance of black people who didn’t lose their dignity even when they lost everything else. Today, with its original brickwork, soaring ceilings, stunning sunlight, and East River views it's not surprising that the site will soon be a 35-story residential and commercial “megaproject” in the now very desirable Williamsburg neighborhood. The enslaved population soared, quadrupling over a 20-year period to 125,000 souls in the mid-19th century.  Of friendships made with the diverse group of Polish, Italian, Caribbean immigrants and other African Americans who also worked at the refinery. Holiday Classics To Cap Off Your Meal. None of this — the extraordinary mass commodification of sugar, its economic might and outsize impact on the American diet and health — was in any way foreordained, or even predictable, when Christopher Columbus made his second voyage across the Atlantic Ocean in 1493, bringing sugar-cane stalks with him from the Spanish Canary Islands. You can’t leave [because] when you are running gas, God forbid that gas would begin to leak, you don’t want that… If the building blows up it would be on the other side of the river in Manhattan.”. “When brought to my final reckoning,” Lincoln once said, “may I have to answer for robbing no man of his goods; yet more tolerable even than this, than for robbing one of himself, and all that was his.”  Her breasts and labia are massive and exposed, signaling both productive and reproductive labor.Â. This past weekend, I visited Kara Walker's art instillation at the old Domino Sugar factory in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, NY, along with my wife Maya, my friend Emma, and hundreds (if not thousands) of other people who all waited in line to get in. The revolt has been virtually redacted from the historical record. For sentimental reasons, that’s all.”, “As July 6 approaches I get sadder and sadder. Of the several “interpreters” who are on hand to answer visitor questions, his is the only intimate connection to the factory. 35.5 x 26 x 75.5 feet (10.8 x 7.9 x 23 m). TheAtlantic.com Copyright (c) 2020 by The Atlantic Monthly Group. By the 1720s, one of every two ships in the city’s port was either arriving from or heading to the Caribbean, importing sugar and enslaved people and exporting flour, meat and shipbuilding supplies. Black men unfamiliar with the brutal nature of the work were promised seasonal sugar jobs at high wages, only to be forced into debt peonage, immediately accruing the cost of their transportation, lodging and equipment — all for $1.80 a day. I’ll push a wheelbarrow I don’t care. Decades later, a new owner of Oak Alley, Hubert Bonzano, exhibited nuts from Antoine’s trees at the Centennial Exposition of 1876, the World’s Fair held in Philadelphia and a major showcase for American innovation. To achieve the highest efficiency, as in the round-the-clock Domino refinery today, sugar houses operated night and day. Below the iconic neon sign of ASR Group’s Domino Sugar Baltimore Refinery lies a state-of-the-art facility that produces 14% of the nation’s cane sugar. "I had to throw eggs at the strike and I had to lay in front of the trucks. Within five decades, Louisiana planters were producing a quarter of the world’s cane-sugar supply. ... slavery in the sugar economy, and much more. Domino Sugar Factory Max Touhey Domino Sugar Refinery . These feelings are intensifying as the installation’s closing this Sunday and the refinery building’s demolition draw nearer.  If you’ve never been down and have to scuffle and scrape you don’t know how to survive.”, Although now retired from the refinery for more than 10 years, Shelton continues to have powerful feelings about the building and the men and women he worked with there. If things don’t change, Lewis told me, “I’m probably one of two or three that’s going to be farming in the next 10 to 15 years. In Louisiana’s plantation tourism, she said, “the currency has been the distortion of the past.”. That’s nearly twice the limit the department recommends, based on a 2,000-calorie diet. The title says it all, and then not. All of this was possible because of the abundantly rich alluvial soil, combined with the technical mastery of seasoned French and Spanish planters from around the cane-growing basin of the Gulf and the Caribbean — and because of the toil of thousands of enslaved people. Much of the Domino Sugar factory, on the East River in the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn, is soon to be demolished to make way for offices, apartments and stores. While the trees can live for a hundred years or more, they do not produce nuts in the first years of life, and the kinds of nuts they produce are wildly variable in size, shape, flavor and ease of shell removal. Lewis is seeking damages of more than $200,000, based on an independent appraisal he obtained, court records show. As many as 500 sugar rebels joined a liberation army heading toward New Orleans, only to be cut down by federal troops and local militia; no record of their actual plans survives. “He was powerless even to chase the flies, or sometimes ants crawling on some parts of his body.”. Pecan trees are native to the middle southwestern region of the Mississippi River Valley and the Gulf Coast of Texas and Mexico. Artist Kara Walker Creates World’s Largest ”Mammy” Statue To Raise Awareness Of Slavery | Clutch Magazine. Sheet music to an 1875 song romanticizing the painful, exhausted death of an enslaved sugar-plantation worker. Located in Williamsburg, the Domino Sugar Factory was built in 1882; by the eighteen-nineties, it was producing half the sugar being consumed in the United States. Representatives for the company did not respond to requests for comment. The Whitney, which opened five years ago as the only sugar-slavery museum in the nation, rests squarely in a geography of human detritus. The operating New York area Domino factory is located in Yonkers. Exhibited at the decaying Domino Sugar Factory in Brooklyn from May to July 2014, Walker's monumental installation, organized on the occasion of the demolition of the Refining Plant, 7 The Domino Sugar Factory will be demolished in August 2014. They are the exceedingly rare exceptions to a system designed to codify black loss. Tours, Factory Tours. But the new lessee, Ryan Doré, a white farmer, did confirm with me that he is now leasing the land and has offered to pay Lewis what a county agent assessed as the crop’s worth, about $50,000. Related: NYC Planning Commission Approves $1.5 Billion Domino Sugar Factory Redevelopment Plan. Domino Sugar’s Chalmette Refinery in Arabi, La., sits on the edge of the mighty Mississippi River, about five miles east by way of the river’s bend from the French Quarter, and less than a mile down from the Lower Ninth Ward, where Hurricane Katrina and the failed levees destroyed so many black lives. Was Antoine aware of his creation’s triumph? It was the introduction of sugar slavery in the New World that changed everything. Cafe Latte Cheesecake view. For 20 years, Robert Shelton punched the clock at Brooklyn's cavernous sugar refinery. When I arrived at the Whitney Plantation Museum on a hot day in June, I mentioned to Ashley Rogers, 36, the museum’s executive director, that I had passed the Nelson Coleman Correctional Center about 15 miles back along the way. And the number of black sugar-cane farmers in Louisiana is most likely in the single digits, based on estimates from people who work in the industry. Domino Sugar’s Chalmette Refinery in Arabi, La., sits on the edge of the mighty Mississippi River, about five miles east by way of the river’s bend from the French Quarter, and less than a mile down from the Lower Ninth Ward, where Hurricane Katrina and the failed levees destroyed so many black lives. But this is definitely a community where you still have to say, ‘Yes sir,’ ‘Yes, ma’am,’ and accept ‘boy’ and different things like that.”. “I think this will settle the question of who is to rule, the nigger or the white man, for the next 50 years,” a local white planter’s widow, Mary Pugh, wrote, rejoicing, to her son. By KHALIL GIBRAN MUHAMMAD The historian Rebecca Scott found that although “black farmers were occasionally able to buy plots of cane land from bankrupt estates, or otherwise establish themselves as suppliers, the trend was for planters to seek to establish relations with white tenants or sharecroppers who could provide cane for the mill.”. A third of them have immediate relatives who either worked there or were born there in the 1960s and ’70s. Her Domino Sugar Factory installation is inclusive, provocative, brilliant. “My family was farming in the late 1800s” near the same land, he says, that his enslaved ancestors once worked. They have been refined and whitewashed in the mills and factories of Southern folklore: the romantic South, the Lost Cause, the popular “moonlight and magnolias” plantation tours so important to Louisiana’s agritourism today. Lewis has no illusions about why the marketing focuses on him, he told me; sugar cane is a lucrative business, and to keep it that way, the industry has to work with the government. These black women show tourists the same slave cabins and the same cane fields their own relatives knew all too well. A congressional investigation in the 1980s found that sugar companies had systematically tried to exploit seasonal West Indian workers to maintain absolute control over them with the constant threat of immediately sending them back to where they came from. Doré denied he is abusing his F.S.A. The United States makes about nine million tons of sugar annually, ranking it sixth in global production. noah.kalina at gmail dot com. The Fanjul brothers' Domino Sugar and Florida Crystals controls the majority of sugar production in Florida and in parts of the Caribbean such as the Dominican Republic. “These are not coincidences.”. Kara Walker, Domino Sugar Factory, Brooklyn, New York – review ... films, drawings and paintings that adumbrate slavery’s shadow over American culture. The United States sugar industry receives as much as $4 billion in annual subsidies in the form of price supports, guaranteed crop loans, tariffs and regulated imports of foreign sugar, which by some estimates is about half the price per pound of domestic sugar. But it is the owners of the 11 mills and 391 commercial farms who have the most influence and greatest share of the wealth. Although the Coleman jail opened in 2001 and is named for an African-American sheriff’s deputy who died in the line of duty, Rogers connects it to a longer history of coerced labor, land theft and racial control after slavery. Walker is a gifted artist, capable of prompting essential dialogue through uncomplicated, joyous work. In 1856 the original Domino Sugar Factory was built in Brooklyn, New York, soon to become the largest sugar refinery of its time. Over the last 30 years, the rate of Americans who are obese or overweight grew 27 percent among all adults, to 71 percent from 56 percent, according to the Centers for Disease Control, with African-Americans overrepresented in the national figures. found, they were captured on the highway or “shot at while trying to hitch rides on the sugar trains.” The company was indicted by a federal grand jury in Tampa for “carrying out a conspiracy to commit slavery,” wrote Alec Wilkinson, in his 1989 book, “Big Sugar: Seasons in the Cane Fields of Florida.” (The indictment was ultimately quashed on procedural grounds.) “To this day we are harassed, retaliated against and denied the true DNA of our past.”, Khalil Gibran Muhammad is a Suzanne Young Murray professor at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University and author of “The Condemnation of Blackness.” Tiya Miles is a professor in the history department at Harvard and the author, most recently, of “The Dawn of Detroit: A Chronicle of Slavery and Freedom in the City of the Straits.”. Pecans are the nut of choice when it comes to satisfying America’s sweet tooth, with the Thanksgiving and Christmas holiday season being the pecan’s most popular time, when the nut graces the rich pie named for it. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library. Find the perfect domino sugar factory stock photo. After a major labor insurgency in 1887, led by the Knights of Labor, a national union, at least 30 black people — some estimated hundreds — were killed in their homes and on the streets of Thibodaux, La. The artist’s first public work evokes the not-so-sweet history of sugar and slavery. Domino Factory jobs, the last large-scale factory work in Brooklyn, enabled its unionized workers the ability to raise and educate their children in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Clinton Hill, Williamsburg and other neighboring communities that since 2004 have increasingly priced out working class families. The landowners did not respond to requests for comment. NYTimes.com no longer supports Internet Explorer 9 or earlier. “Most people who worked in that building have some form of cancer—you’re dealing with acid, lime, particle dust that is so fine,” he said. More French planters and their enslaved expert sugar workers poured into Louisiana as Toussaint L’Ouverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines led a successful revolution to secure Haiti’s independence from France. Kara Walker’s A Subtlety or the Marvelous Sugar Baby is not subtle.Dusted with 40 tons of bleached sugar, it stands nearly four stories high and lays 75 and a half feet long across the gutted cavern of the Domino Sugar Factory, which will soon to destroyed and replaced with a glossy condo complex. But not at Whitney. His granddaughter is now a psychiatrist and alumnus of Clark Atlanta University. Until 2004, Shelton worked in the kiln department. Robert Shelton’s story sheds light on this forgotten narrative. Single Layer … But other times workers met swift and violent reprisals. I had to know how fast I could run up the stairs and lock the door, literally.” The Sheltons purchased a home about one-quarter of a mile away from the refinery and furnished it with discarded furniture they found on the Upper West Side and refinished. Wages and working conditions occasionally improved. All Rights  "The foremen brought in scabs," remembers Shelton. As the horticulturalist Lenny Wells has recorded, the exhibited nuts received a commendation from the Yale botanist William H. Brewer, who praised them for their “remarkably large size, tenderness of shell and very special excellence.” Coined “the Centennial,” Antoine’s pecan varietal was then seized upon for commercial production (other varieties have since become the standard). The Domino Sugar Factory project, which involves the construction of new residential and commercial towers at the former factory site, was approved last … Many African-Americans aspired to own or rent their own sugar-cane farms in the late 19th century, but faced deliberate efforts to limit black farm and land owning. 2737-42. “I want to be part of the group of people to take the plant down. Fatigue might mean losing an arm to the grinding rollers or being flayed for failing to keep up. “You need a few minorities in there, because these mills survive off having minorities involved with the mill to get these huge government loans,” he said. About Domino Sugar. How sugar became the “white gold” that fueled slavery — and an industry that continues to exploit black lives to this day. in St. Martin and Lafayette Parish, and also participates in lobbying federal legislators. “The true Age of Sugar had begun — and it was doing more to reshape the world than any ruler, empire or war had ever done,” Marc Aronson and Marina Budhos write in their 2010 book, “Sugar Changed the World.” Over the four centuries that followed Columbus’s arrival, on the mainlands of Central and South America in Mexico, Guyana and Brazil as well as on the sugar islands of the West Indies — Cuba, Barbados and Jamaica, among others — countless indigenous lives were destroyed and nearly 11 million Africans were enslaved, just counting those who survived the Middle Passage. Roman did what many enslavers were accustomed to in that period: He turned the impossible work over to an enslaved person with vast capabilities, a man whose name we know only as Antoine. As first reported in The Guardian, Wenceslaus Provost Jr. claims the company breached a harvesting contract in an effort to deliberately sabotage his business. During his time at the factory, Shelton and his wife raised Shelton’s stepdaughter and stepson. Please upgrade your browser. It sits on the west bank of the Mississippi at the northern edge of the St. John the Baptist Parish, home to dozens of once-thriving sugar plantations; Marmillion’s plantation and torture box were just a few miles down from Whitney. Art21, a producer of contemporary art documentaries, was given access to the making of Kara Walker’s installation at Domino. In the mill, alongside adults, children toiled like factory workers with assembly-line precision and discipline under the constant threat of boiling hot kettles, open furnaces and grinding rollers. Now he's a docent at Kara Walker's art exhibit there, sharing with visitors the story of his life. In spite of the difficult working conditions, jobs at the refinery remained the best opportunities available for many because of the benefits, which included paid vacation and paid sabbatical every year. Even before harvest time, rows had to be dug, stalks planted and plentiful wood chopped as fuel for boiling the liquid and reducing it to crystals and molasses. Slavery was the theft of property and emancipation was the restoration of the property right every human being has in his or her self. Photo from the documentary in Slant Magazine. The crop, land and farm theft that they claim harks back to the New Deal era, when Southern F.S.A. And yet tourists, Rogers said, sometimes admit to her, a white woman, that they are warned by hotel concierges and tour operators that Whitney is the one misrepresenting the past. Â, “I was the first person of color to work in the engineering office,” Shelton remembers. position and countered that “the Lewis boy” is trying to “make this a black-white deal.” Doré insisted that “both those guys simply lost their acreage for one reason and one reason only: They are horrible farmers.”. Fast forward to today: In the near future, the 30,000-square-foot facility, which stopped production in 2004, will likely be demolished to make way for a shiny crop of new condos, designed to better suit the ever-gentrifying landscape. Much of the 3,000 acres he now farms comes from relationships with white landowners his father, Eddie Lewis Jr., and his grandfather before him, built and maintained. “You are meant to empathize with the owners as their guests,” Rogers told me in her office. When some of the workers came back with their wives and families…when the refinery closed some men lost their jobs, they had a pension but they became alcoholics because their wives left them, their kids had to drop out of college. In addition to the temperature being as much as 140 degrees, “once you are on the floor you are there for whole shift. He says he does it because the stakes are so high. Credit: Kara Walker. A former financial adviser at Morgan Stanley, Lewis, 36, chose to leave a successful career in finance to take his rightful place as a fifth-generation farmer. In the vibrant public conversation that has surrounded this exhibit, the factory itself—its history and especially its workers—have become mere backdrop, a focus on plantation slavery unfortunately muting the history of the industrial urban workers who produced the commodity in factories. It's a history that spanned decades, beginning before the Civil War: The factory complex on the Brooklyn waterfront that now hosts Walker's exhibit originally opened in 1856. By 1870, it was processing more than half of the sugar consumed in the United States, was rebuilt in 1882 after a fire, and continued to refine sugar until its doors closed in 2004. From the earliest traces of cane domestication on the Pacific island of New Guinea 10,000 years ago to its island-hopping advance to ancient India in 350 B.C., sugar was locally consumed and very labor-intensive. Once white Southerners became fans of the nut, they set about trying to standardize its fruit by engineering the perfect pecan tree. Many specimens thrived, and Antoine fashioned still more trees, selecting for nuts with favorable qualities. Most of these stories of brutality, torture and premature death have never been told in classroom textbooks or historical museums. A Subtlety, or the Marvelous Sugar Baby, an Homage to the unpaid and overworked Artisans who have refined our Sweet tastes from the cane fields to the Kitchens of the New World on the Occasion of the demolition of the Domino Sugar Refining Plant, 2014. “There’s still a few good white men around here,” Lewis told me. It remained little more than an exotic spice, medicinal glaze or sweetener for elite palates. Even today, incarcerated men harvest Angola’s cane, which is turned into syrup and sold on-site. Planters tried to cultivate pecan trees for a commercial market beginning at least as early as the 1820s, when a well-known planter from South Carolina named Abner Landrum published detailed descriptions of his attempt in the American Farmer periodical. Eggnog view. It opened in its current location in 1901 and took the name of one of the plantations that had occupied the land. Sited in the sprawling industrial relics of Brooklyn’s legendary Domino Sugar Factory, Walker’s physically and conceptually expansive installation—a massive, sugar-coated sphinx-like woman—responded to the building and its history. Patout and Son for getting him started in sugar-cane farming, also told me he is farming some of the land June Provost had farmed. By World War II, many black people began to move not simply from one plantation to another, but from a cane field to a car factory in the North. Although strikes were common, the conflict that began in 2002 was especially bitter. Lewis is himself a litigant in a separate petition against white landowners. It is North America’s largest sugar refinery, making nearly two billion pounds of sugar and sugar products annually. Approx. Lewis and Guidry have appeared in separate online videos. (In court filings, M.A. BASIC INFO: The Domino Sugar Factory is located at South 1 st Street at Kent Avenue, Williamsburg, NY 11211.  “A Subtlety” powerfully brings the history and feeling of slavery into the present. A View From the Kiln After years of struggling to make ends meet with part-time, non-union jobs, a woman he met at work recommended him for a job at the refinery in 1984. As new wage earners, they negotiated the best terms they could, signed labor contracts for up to a year and moved frequently from one plantation to another in search of a life whose daily rhythms beat differently than before. committees denied black farmers government funding. He found out about the exhibit through an article in the New York Times and knew immediately he wanted to be involved.Â, Commissioned by Creative Time arts organization, Walker’s “marvelous sugar baby,” a massive “mammy sphinx” fashioned from 40 tons of compressed white sugar, and the coterie of molasses-covered serving boys, have been seen by thousands of visitors over the course of its nine-week run. More. Photograph by Hugo V. Sass, via the Museum of The City of New York. ], “White gold” drove trade in goods and people, fueled the wealth of European nations and, for the British in particular, shored up the financing of their North American colonies. Domino Foods, Inc. (also known as DFI and formerly known as W. & F.C.

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